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The city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, duco , which translates as "I am not led, I lead.
Other tribes also lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region. The region was divided in Caciquedoms chiefdoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans.
They first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style.
The priests wanted to evangelize — teach catechesis the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity. The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar , called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba.
The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus.
The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in It was then named "College of St.
The new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups.
Paul, designating it the "Head of the captaincy. It was also the center of interior colonial development. Because they were extremely poor, the Paulistas could not afford to buy African slaves , as did other Portuguese colonists.
The town became a centre for the bandeirantes , intrepid explorers who marched into unknown lands in search for gold, diamonds, precious stones, and Indians to enslave.
The bandeirantes , which could be translated as "flag-bearers" or "flag-followers", organized excursions into the land with the primary purpose of profit and the expansion of territory for the Portuguese crown.
Trade grew from the local markets and from providing food and accommodation for explorers. The two groups had frequently come into conflict because of the Jesuits' opposition to the domestic slave trade in Indians.
The Portuguese expanded their Brazilian territory beyond the Tordesillas Line to incorporate the gold regions. Cultivation of this commodity crop spread through the interior of the Captaincy.
The sugar was exported through the Port of Santos. The influx of students and teachers gave a new impetus to the city's growth, thanks to which the city became the Imperial City and Borough of Students of St.
In the late 19th century, several other railroads connected the interior to the state capital. Slaves were the main source of labour in the coffee plantations until then.
As a consequence of this law, and following governmental stimulus towards the increase of immigration, the province began to receive a large number of immigrants, largely Italians, Japanese and Portuguese peasants, many of whom settled in the capital.
The region's first industries also began to emerge, providing jobs to the newcomers, especially those who had to learn Portuguese. Its greatest growth in this period was relative in the s when it doubled its population.
Industrialization was the economic cycle that followed the coffee plantation model. The cultural scene followed modernist and naturalist tendencies in fashion at the beginning of the 20th century.
The Modern Art Week of that took place at the Theatro Municipal was an event marked by avant-garde ideas and works of art. This "revolution" is considered by some historians as the last armed conflict to take place in Brazil's history.
The movement grew out of local resentment from the fact that Vargas ruled by decree, unbound by a constitution, in a provisional government.
These events marked the end of the Old Republic. The uprising commenced on July 9, , after four protesting students were killed by federal government troops on May 23, A fifth victim, Alvarenga, was also shot that night, but died months later.
The region is seismically stable and no significant seismic activity has ever been recorded. Analogous to the BosWash definition, it is one of the largest urban agglomerations in the world, with 32 million inhabitants,  behind Tokyo , which includes 4 contiguous legally defined metropolitan regions and 3 microregions.
However, heavy industrial effluents and wastewater discharges in the later 20th century caused the rivers to become heavily polluted.
A substantial clean-up program for both rivers is underway, financed through a partnership between local government and international development banks such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation.
No large natural lakes exist in the region, but the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoirs in the city's southern outskirts are used for power generation , water storage and leisure activities, such as sailing.
The original flora consisted mainly of broadleaf evergreens. Non-native species are common, as the mild climate and abundant rainfall permit a multitude of tropical, subtropical and temperate plants to be cultivated, especially the ubiquitous eucalyptus.
The city has a mild humid subtropical climate by which it can be compared to Brisbane , Australia  Cfa , according to the Köppen classification.
The record high temperature was The city experiences four seasons. The winter is mild and sub-dry, and the summer is moderately warm and rainy.
Autumn and spring are transitional seasons. Frosts occur sporadically in regions further away from the center, in some winters throughout the city.
Rainfall is abundant, annually averaging 1, millimetres On the other hand, relatively cool days during summer are fairly common when persistent winds blow from the ocean.
In winter, however, the strong inflow of cold fronts accompanied by excessive cloudiness and polar air cause very low temperatures, even in the afternoon.
Locals say that all four seasons can be experienced in one day. In the morning, when winds blow from the ocean, the weather can be cool or sometimes even cold.
When the sun hits its peak, the weather can be extremely dry and hot. When the sun sets, the cold wind comes back bringing cool temperatures.
This phenomenon happens usually in the winter. In , the city had 2,, opposite-sex couples and 7, same-sex couples.
Since to , approximately 2. The Italian community is one of the strongest, with a presence throughout the city. Even today, Italians are grouped in neighborhoods like Bixiga, Bras and Mooca to promote celebrations and festivals.
Six thousand pizzerias are producing about a million pizzas a day. The Portuguese community is also large, and it is estimated that three million paulistanos have some origin in Portugal.
Germans, French and Italians shared the dry goods sector with Brazilians. Foodstuffs was generally the province of either Portuguese or Brazilians, except for bakery and pastry which was the domain of the French and Germans.
Shoes and tinware were mostly controlled by Italians. However, the larger metallurgical plants were in the hands of the English and the Americans.
Of the immigrants who arrived there between and , Between and , The main reported ancestries were: The city once attracted numerous immigrants from all over Brazil and even from foreign countries, due to a strong economy and for being the hub of most Brazilian companies;  however, since , wealthy Sao Paulo residents have been fleeing to cities including the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area ,  Boston , and Miami , secondary to a surge in Brazilian violence and instability.
This migration grew enormously in the s and remained huge in the next decades. The concentration of land, modernization in rural areas, changes in work relationships and cycles of droughts stimulated migration.
Buddhism and Eastern religions also have relevance among the beliefs most practiced by Paulistas. It is estimated that there are more than one hundred thousand Buddhist followers and Hindu.
Also considerable are Judaism , Mormonism and Afro-Brazilian religions. Others 1, had no religion 9.
The archive of the archdiocese, called the Metropolitan Archival Dom Duarte Leopoldo e Silva, located in the Ipiranga neighborhood, holds one of the most important documentary heritage in Brazil.
According to the Global Homicide Survey released by the United Nations , in the period between and the homicide rate dropped from Crime rates , such as homicide , have been steadily declining for 8 years.
Carandiru's 9th DP is considered one of the five best police stations in the world and the best in Latin America. Among the capitals, it was the fourth less violent, registering, in , homicide rates higher than those of Boa Vista , Palmas and Natal.
During two World Wars and the Great Depression , coffee exports from other regions of the state were critically affected.
The primary language is Portuguese. From on, following orders from Marquess of Pombal , Portuguese language was introduced through immigration and consequently taught to children in schools.
The original Tupi Austral language subsequently lost ground to Portuguese , and eventually became extinct. Italian mingled with Portuguese and as an old influence, was assimilated or disappeared into spoken language.
The local accent with Italian influences became notorious through the songs of Adoniran Barbosa , a Brazilian samba singer born to Italian parents who used to sing using the local accent.
Other languages spoken in the city are mainly among the Asian community: Although today most Japanese-Brazilians speak only Portuguese, some of them are still fluent in Japanese.
Some people of Chinese and Korean descent are still able to speak their ancestral languages. The Legislative Power is represented by the Municipal Chamber, composed of 55 aldermen elected to four-year posts in compliance with the provisions of Article 29 of the Constitution, which governs a minimum number of 42 and a maximum of 55 for municipalities with more than five million inhabitants.
It is up to the house to draft and vote fundamental laws to the administration and to the Executive, especially the municipal budget well-known like Law of Budgetary Guidelines.
The actual performance and representativeness of such councils, however, are sometimes questioned. The following municipal councils are active: These zones are identified by colors in the street signs.
According to PricewaterhouseCoopers average annual economic growth of the city is 4. The city has 1, bank branches and 70 shopping malls.
The city is unique among Brazilian cities for its large number of foreign corporations. Santiago now ranks second, followed by Rio de Janeiro.
Because of the lack of department stores and multi-brand boutiques, shopping malls as well as the Jardins district, which is more or less the Brazilian's Rodeo Drive version, attract most of the world's luxurious brands.
Opened in , JK shopping mall has brought to Brazil brands that were not present in the country before such as Goyard, Tory Burch, Llc.
Large hotel chains whose target audience is the corporate traveller are in the city. The annual March For Jesus is a large gathering of Christians from Protestant churches throughout Brazil, with Sao Paulo police reporting participation in the range of , in The city has a nightlife that is considered one of the best in the country.
There are cinemas, theaters, museums and cultural centers. The cuisine of the region is a tourist attraction. The city has 62 cuisines across 12, restaurants.
The new job vacancies contributed to attract a significant number of immigrants mainly from Italy  and migrants, especially from the Northeastern states.
The rapid population growth has brought many problems for the city. The water loss is However, between 11 and Sixty percent of the sewage collected is treated.
The fixed telephony network is still precarious, with coverage of The original nuclei of the city are vertical, characterized by the presence of commercial buildings and services; And the peripheries are generally developed with two to four-story buildings - although such generalization certainly meets with exceptions in the fabric of the metropolis.
Its tallest buildings rarely reach forty stories, and the average residential building is twenty. Such tissue heterogeneity, however, is not as predictable as the generic model can make us imagine.
Some central regions of the city began to concentrate indigents, drug trafficking , street vending and prostitution , which encouraged the creation of new socio-economic centralities.
The characterization of each region of the city also underwent several changes throughout the 20th century.
With the relocation of industries to other cities or states, several areas that once housed factory sheds have become commercial or even residential areas.
These three periods are characterized by the typical constructive processes of their times. However, in general, the city was formed during the 20th century, growing from village to metropolis through a series of informal processes and irregular urban sprawl.
The effectiveness of these plans has been seen by some planners and historians as questionable. Some of these scholars argue that such plans were produced exclusively for the benefit of the wealthier strata of the population while the working classes would be relegated to the traditional informal processes.
The Plan of the Avenues was implemented during the s and sought to build large avenues connecting the city center with the outskirts.
This plan included renewing the commercial city center, leading to real estate speculation and gentrification of several downtown neighborhoods.
The plan also led to the expansion of bus services, which would soon replace the trolley as the preliminary transportation system. Peripheral neighborhoods were usually unregulated and consisted mainly of self-built single-family houses.
The main result was zoning laws. It lasted until when the Basic Plan was replaced by the current Master Plan.
That zoning, adopted in , designated "Z1" areas residential areas designed for elites and "Z3" a "mixed zone" lacking clear definitions about their characteristics.
Zoning encouraged the growth of suburbs with minimal control and major speculation. After the s peripheral lot regulation increased and infrastructure in the periphery improved, driving land prices up.
The poorest and the newcomers were now unable to purchase their lot and build their house, and were forced to look for a housing alternative.
Favelas went back into the urban perimeter, occupying the small lots that had not yet been occupied by urbanization—alongside polluted rivers, railways, or between bridges.
More than nine-tenths of the population are literate and roughly the same proportion of those age 7 to 14 are enrolled in school.
The private health care sector is very large and most of Brazil's best hospitals are located in the city. The municipal government operates public health facilities across the city's territory, with primary health care units UBS , ambulatory and emergency clinics and 17 hospitals.
The Municipal Secretary of Health has 59, employees, including 8, physicians and 12, nurses. Automobiles are the main means to get into the city.
In March , more than 7 million vehicles were registered. The west, south and east parts are completed, and the north part, which will close the beltway, is due to CGH for domestic and regional flights.
Another airport, the Campo de Marte Airport , serves private jets and light aircraft. The three airports together moved more than In the latest upgrade, twelve boarding bridges were installed to provide more comfort to passengers by eliminating the need to walk in the open to their flights.
The terminal area was expanded from Built in the s, it was designed to handle the increasing demand for flights, in the fastest growing city in the world.
Located in Campo Belo District, Congonhas Airport is close to the three main city's financial districts: Every day nearly The airport's cargo terminal is South America's largest.
In , over The airport handles private flights and air shuttles, including air taxi firms. Opened in , Campo de Marte is the base for the largest helicopter fleet in Brazil and the world's, ahead of New York and Tokyo, with a fleet of more than 3.
Agricultural products were transferred to Luz Station from which they headed to the Atlantic Ocean and overseas. Luz Station was built in Britain and assembled in Brazil.
The city has The underground and railway lines carry some 7 million people on an average weekday together.
It is the largest concentration of people in a single transport system in the world, according to the company.
Bus transport government and private is composed of 17, buses including about trolley buses. Routes to 1, cities in five countries Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay are available.
It connects to all regional airports and a ride sharing automobile service to Santos. At least six people were arrested in the protests.
The second and third positions are of New York City and Tokyo. With helicopters  in and around 2, flights per day within the central area, the city is, according to The Guardian , turning into a "real life South-American episode of The Jetsons ".
Helicopters enable businessmen and workers to sharply reduce time spent moving around and commuting. Some companies own their helicopters, others lease them and still others use helicopter taxi services.
His songs drew from the life of urban workers, the unemployed and those who lived on the edge. His first big hit was "Saudosa Maloca" "Shanty of Fond Memories" — , wherein three homeless friends recall with nostalgia their improvised shanty home, which was torn down by the landowner to make room for a building.
Another important musician with a similar style is Paulo Vanzolini. Vanzolini is a PhD in Biology and a part-time professional musician.
In the late s, a psychedelic rock band called Os Mutantes became popular. Their success is related to that of other tropicalia musicians.
The group were known as very paulistanos in their behaviour and clothing. Os Mutantes released five albums before lead singer Rita Lee departed in to join another group called Tutti Frutti.
Although initially known only in Brazil, Os Mutantes became successful abroad after the s. In , Tecnicolor , an album recorded in the early s in English by the band, was released with artwork designed by Sean Lennon.
In the early s, a band called Ultraje a Rigor Elegant Outrage emerged. They played a simple and irreverent style of rock. The lyrics depicted the changes in society and culture that Brazilian society was experiencing.
A late punk and garage scene became strong in the s, perhaps associated with the gloomy scenario of unemployment during an extended recession.
Bands originating from this movement include Ira! Local baritone Paulo Szot has won international acclaim and a Tony Award nomination for his performance in a revival of South Pacific.
The city hosts several music halls. The main ones are: The Sambadrome hosts musical presentations as well.
Festivals as the Virada Cultural "Cultural Overnight" happen once a year and holds hundreds of attractions spread throughout the city.
They wrote reports to the Portuguese crown about the newly found land, the native peoples and composed poetry and music for the catechism , creating the first written works from the area.
They also helped to register the Old Tupi language , lexicon and its grammar. Brazil had gone through the same stages of development as the rest of Latin America, but its political and cultural independence came more gradually.
Brazilian elite culture was originally strongly tied to Portugal. Gradually writers developed a multi-ethnic body of work that was distinctively Brazilian.
The presence of large numbers of former slaves added a distinctive African character to the culture. Subsequent infusions of immigrants of non-Portuguese origin broadened the range of influences.
Oswald de Andrade's experimental poetry, avant-garde prose, particularly the novel Serafim Ponte Grande and provocative manifestos exemplify the movement's break with tradition.
The site happened to be a bastion of European culture with opera and classical music presentations from Germany, France, Austria and Italy.
They defied the high society that frequented the venue and who insisted on speaking only foreign languages such as French, behaving as if Brazilian culture did not matter.
In the second half of the 19th century a cultural, musical and theatrical life emerged. European ethnic groups began holding performances in some of the state's rural cities.
After the military coup of , plays started focusing on Brazilian history Zumbi, Tiradentes. Teatro de Arena and Teatro Oficina supported the democratic resistance during the military dictatorship period, marked by its censorship.
The Tropicalist movement began there. The district of Bixiga concentrates the greatest number of theaters , around 40 including the theaters that are closed for refurbishing or for other reasons, and small alternatives companies venues.
The city has museums and art galleries. In , it became a history museum. Reflecting the architectural influence of the Versailles Palace in France, the Ipiranga's collection, with approximately , pieces, comprises works of art, furniture, clothing and appliances that belonged to those who took part in Brazilian history , such as explorers, rulers and freedom fighters.
Its headquarters is a s mansion. We call them Bambi from the Disney movie, because they play football like gays! Well Bambi is effeminate, and fans of other teams like using Bambi as a nickname for Sao Paulo fans, to make fun of them.
I can confirm that this is in fact, a big, fat, lie! Sao Paulo is just one of the three main teams here in the city of Sao Paulo and not the main one like I originally thought.
I have written this word in capital letters and then put it in bold, to emphasise how big their rivalry actually is….
So about years ago, a London based team called Corinthians toured around Brazil. They inspired a group of working-class Brazilian footballers to form their own team, and just 10 days after the British Corinthians had played in Sao Paulo, the Sao Paulo Corinthians were playing their their first match….
Of course, this is not the real reason at all…I have picked the team I support over here in the same way I would pick a horse at the races.
Corinthians play in a black and white kit, which looks very similar to the Newcastle Untied one. As someone born and raised in the north of England, I feel inclined to back this team….
Surely they are just making life difficult for themselves!?! Interestingly Palmeiras were founded just a few years after Corinthians, and were formed to represent the Italian community in the city.
Initially they were supported by fans of Italian descent, but nowadays their supporters are a very diverse mix of people.
I have no idea why their nickname is porcos, nor do any of my students. Their actual mascot is a green bird. I found this strange, with Santos being so close, and with it being a team known for having had Pele on their books.
This meant newer football fans became less enthusiastic about the club and subsequently this new generation of supporters then began to follow other, more successful teams.
In the past couple of years though, the club has once again become a force to be reckoned with and has started winning championships.
So the younger generation of kids are now beginning to support Santos again. As I got inside the subway train, I looked up at the small TV screen near the train doors.
There he was again, but this time he was spraying his armpit with Rexona, trying to tempt me to buy some deodorant. By the time I got to my students office, I found myself sitting in the reception area, looking up at the big screen.
You will never guess whose face I saw looking down at me. Actually, you probably will. It was bloody Neymar, advertising that bank.
Well there you have it, the first half of my blog on football in Sao Paulo. Until then, here is my favourite Neymar commercial, In it, he dances to Beyonce with some team mates to advertise Seara, a meat based company in Brazil the largest exporter of pork in Brazil, according to Wikipedia!
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